4.3. Using resources

4.3.1. Introduction

Most programs use some sort of resource - some read files, other write to a relational database, etc. In this document, we will refer to a “resource” as the description containing all the necessary data to use it (a file path, a database connection string + password, ...)

There are many approaches to define these resources (directly in the code, in a configuration file...) but they all have caveats (mostly: they are not easy to use in a multi environment context, where resource descriptions change from one environment to another). All these approaches can be used with JQM since JQM runs all JSE code. Yet, Java has standardized JNDI as a way to retrieve these resources, and JQM provides a limited JNDI directory implementation that can be used by the payloads.

JQM JNDI directory can be used for:

  • JDBC connections
  • JMS resources
  • Files
  • URLs
  • Simple Strings
  • Mail session (outgoing SMTP only)
  • every ObjectFactory provided by the payloads


JNDI is actually part of JEE, not JSE, but it is so useful in the context of JQM use cases that it was implemented. The fact that it is present does not mean that JQM is a JEE container. Notably, there is no injection mechanism and JNDI resources have to be manualy looked up.


An object returned by a JNDI lookup (in JQM or elsewhere) is just a description. The JNDI system has not checked if the object existed, if all parameters are present, etc. It also means that it is the client’s respsonsbility to open files, database connections... and close them in the end.

The JNDI system is totally independent from the JQM API described in Accessing the JQM engine API. It is always present, whatever type your payload is and even if the jqm-api jar is not present.

By ‘limited’, we mean the directory only provides a single root JNDI context. Basically, all JNDI lookups are given to the same JNDI context and are looked up inside the JQM database by name exactly as they are given (case-sensitive).

This chapter focusses on using them inside payloads. To define resources, see Administrating resources.

Below are some samples & details for various cases.

4.3.2. JDBC

DataSource ds = InitialContext.doLookup("jdbc/superalias");

Please note the use of InitialContext for the context lookup: as noted above, JQM only uses the root context.

It is interesting to note that the JQM NamingManager is standard - it can be used from wherever is needed, such as a JPA provider configuration: in a persistence.xml, it is perfectly valid to use <non-jta-datasource>jdbc/superalias</non-jta-datasource>.

If all programs running inside a JQM cluster always use the same database, it is possible to define a JDBC alias as the “default connection” (cf. Parameters). It can then be retrieved directly through the JobManager.getDefaultConnection() method of the JQM engine API. (this is the only JNDI-related element that requires the API).

4.3.3. JMS

Connecting to a JMS broker to send or receive messages, such as ActiveMQ or MQSeries, requires first a QueueConnectionFactory, then a Queue object. The implementation of these interfaces changes with brokers, and are not provided by JQM - they must be provided with the payload or put inside the ext directory.

import javax.jms.Connection;
import javax.jms.MessageProducer;
import javax.jms.Queue;
import javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory;
import javax.jms.Session;
import javax.jms.TextMessage;
import javax.naming.spi.NamingManager;
import com.enioka.jqm.api.JobBase;

public class SuperTestPayload extends JobBase
        public void start()
                int nb = 0;
                        // Get the QCF
                        Object o = NamingManager.getInitialContext(null).lookup("jms/qcf");
                        System.out.println("Received a " + o.getClass());

                        // Do as cast & see if no errors
                        QueueConnectionFactory qcf = (QueueConnectionFactory) o;

                        // Get the Queue
                        Object p = NamingManager.getInitialContext(null).lookup("jms/testqueue");
                        System.out.println("Received a " + p.getClass());
                        Queue q = (Queue) p;

                        // Now that we are sure that JNDI works, let's write a message
                        System.out.println("Opening connection & session to the broker");
                        Connection connection = qcf.createConnection();
                        Session session = connection.createSession(true, Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE);

                        System.out.println("Creating producer");
                        MessageProducer producer = session.createProducer(q);
                        TextMessage message = session.createTextMessage("HOUBA HOP. SIGNED: MARSUPILAMI");

                        System.out.println("Sending message");
                        System.out.println("A message was sent to the broker");
                catch (Exception e)

4.3.4. Files

File f = InitialContext.doLookup("fs/superalias");

4.3.5. URL

URL f = InitialContext.doLookup("url/testurl");